Understanding and Preparing to
Survive Terrorism Disasters
TERRORISM IS A FACT OF LIFE FOR EVERYONE!
.......Learn to Identify and Deal with Terrorist Events ...
Many governments and various groups seem challenged to create a quality definition of terrorism today even though they have had years to ponder the idea. Maybe it is easier to define terrorism by the method used to define pornography when a U.S. Supreme Court Justice once said-"you know what it is when you see it".
Examine for a moment the definitions put forth by the U.S. government agencies even today…
The narrow definition of terrorism as defined by FEMA-
"terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom". 
We find this definition to be somewhat lacking and rather dated in its ability to encompass the many different forms of terrorist events today. What's missing in this definition?
The U.S. State Department also offers a definition of terrorism which tends more towards legal terminology:
"No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance.. .we have chosen the definition of terrorism contained in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d). That statute contains the following definitions:
The term "terrorism" means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant (1) targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country.
The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism."
(The U.S. Government has employed this definition of terrorism for statistical and analytical purposes since 1983)."
Again, this definition doesn't seem to go far enough in defining the many of the types of terrorism that can be visualized today. In fact, they do not even mention "domestic terrorism". With their focus primarily on international terrorism, they have opted to avoid the concept of domestic terrorism facing governments today on a global scale.
The other concern that we have with both the State Department and FEMA's definition, is that not all terrorism acts involve only physical violence. There are a number of other terrorist events that involve non-violent actions such as financial and internet cyber-terrorism, biological, and chemical forms where the victims are initially unaware that a terrorist activity has been executed against them.
What is really alarming to us, regarding both official definitions above, is the failure to address religious-based terrorism, not just political. In fact, we all know that this has been the primary motivation of nearly all terrorist activity even before the Trade Center incident and it continues today.
(The one exception today might be the domestic, narco-terrorism that is taking place daily in Mexico by the drug cartels against the government, military, law enforcement, and the poor people that get swept up into the tornado of violence either directly or indirectly.)
Our proposed definition of terrorism would be defined as follows:
Terrorism, whether motivated by political or religious ideals either domestically or internationally, is the premeditated use of force, violence, harmful substances, cyber technology, or sabotage of systems against noncombatants such as government representatives, citizens, foreign persons, or property for the purposes of destruction, disruption, intimidation, coercion, or ransom-- often coupled with a higher objective of influencing a desired change.
On this site we will consider both the older forms of terrorism as well as the newer forms that have been conceived in this last decade. Additionally, we will suggest personal and family defenses for most of the enumerated forms of terrorism plus update you on any new ones in the future.
It would appear that there are many different ways to classify terrorism acts. The two broad categories of terrorism fall into:
- International and
Within these two categories, we have three sub-categories that apply to both international and domestic terrorism which for those involved:
- Government/State, and
For example, using the international terrorist category, the act occurs by an attacking party from one or more countries against the assets or citizens of another country even if the victims and assets are foreign or domestically based. (i.e. An al-Qaida member or group attacks the French embassy in Yemen. Here the attackers and the attacked are from other countries, attaching a target in another country and impacting the assets of yet another country on foreign soil.) It can get complicated!.
Typically, these acts involve only non-state or non-governmental actors. But, it can be argued that states can and have been terrorist when they use force or the threat of force, without declaring war, to terrorize citizens and achieve a political objective. Saddam Hussein in 1987 is a classical example of this kind of terrorism aimed at the Kurds in the northern provinces of Iraq. He used chemical terrorism killing thousands with bombs of mustard gas and nerve agents which resulted in blindness, vomiting, blisters, convulsions, and asphyxiation. 5,000 men, women, and children died horrible deaths within days with an estimated 10,000 left to suffer long-term permanent blindness, cancer, and disfigurement.
Also, states like Iran participate in international terrorism via proxy groups like Hezbollah and Hamas to carry out its shadow foreign policies.
With domestic terrorism you have both the terrorists and the victims being citizens of the same country-known as "home-grown terrorists". The terrorism act is carried out by a national citizen against assets and/or victims of the same nation. (It is a self-contained event and one of the most dangerous to prevent because of the many legal protections for the terrorists and their ability to move easily around the area appearing as a normal citizen.)
The motivations of terrorists are to use their threats or actions to:
- Intimidate citizen psyche at large--
- Create fear and uncertainty in daily and future activities.
- Establish short and long term stress on individuals of a country or area.
- Kill as many innocent people as possible.
- Establish doubt in the minds and actions of citizens as to their government's ability to protect them.
- Achieve notoriety, fame, or publicity for their terrorist purposes.
- Hopefully, destabilize or burden-
- Various levels of governments and institutions at all levels within a country.
- The economic systems of trade.
- Transportation and communication systems.
- Utility systems and infrastructure.
Types of Terrorism Acts
Above, we broadly categorized the types and subtypes of terrorism. Then we identified their principle goals, aspirations, and broad methods. Below, we identify the primary types of terrorism that governments and people are faced with today. Within many of these are variations that have occurred or can possibly occur in the future. Each type requires its own set of tactics and tools for defense and protection for those entities that may be targeted.
Because there are so many forms and uncertainties, it is difficult to propose a set of defenses for each one separately. The best defensive approach to prepare for and survive any single type is to define levels of defenses rather than tailor made ones. Then supplement preparations for any particular facet or gap.
Terrorism can be manifest either by a threat of a pending act or the actual execution of an unexpressed threat. The threat method can produce a large economic burden on a society preventing the preferred allocations of capital and human assets away from productive good. (Think airline terror prevention efforts and infrastructure internationally). These terrorism acts can be against people (groups of non-combatants) in the form of--
- Murders-persons or small groups,
- Mass Murder-against large public gatherings, within transportation systems, or against urban populations as acts of genocide.
Below is a list of eight primary acts of terrorism most governments and citizen are cognizant of and concerned with:
Attacks on software computer systems, external internet, internal intranets, personal computers, types of servers, etc. using computer-based viruses, worms, or trojans
against the following entities--
Internal computer system sabotage with the objective to damage, compromise, or steal money and information from:
Attacks upon drinking water sources and food supplies (crops, processing, storage, or animals) affecting large populations of animals, plants, or humans via destruction or poisoning.
Attacks on water and food supplies of large populations of animals, plants, or humans with pathogens such as viruses and bacteria strains such as anthrax, smallpox, etc.
EMP (Electro-Magnetic Pulse)-military and civilian government facilities, large cities, critical facilities, or infrastructure.
Applied against military and civilian government facilities, large cities, critical facilities, or infrastructure using--
- Dirty bomb-short and long term population deaths and asset destruction preventing future use of assets because of long-term, radioactive contamination.
- Nuclear bomb-total annihilation of property and life with long-term radioactive contamination.
- Neutron bomb-total annihilation of all living things, leaving infrastructure unharmed and available for future use.
Environmental extremists who sabotage property to inflict economic damage on those that they perceive doing the environment harm such as logging companies, animal research laboratories, fur industries, etc.
Two types are recognized here-
- Drug cartels terrorizing citizens, government officials, press, and fighting against a national military to continue their drug trade and human trafficking.
- Terrorist groups using drug trafficking to fund their other terrorist activities.
(We are addressing terrorism at large in this site section. But, many of the applicable concepts for terrorist could apply equally to a surprise military attack by a rogue nation like Iran or North Korea which might use such terrorism tactics to support their conventional military operations.)
COULD A TERRORISM DISASTER IMPACT YOU?
The chances that an act of terrorism might impact you directly or indirectly depends upon many factors such as:
- Your location to a potential terrorist target.
- Your proximity to the epicenter of the terrorist attack.
- The time it takes to recognize or learn that you have been attacked.
- The length of time you remain in the area after an attack.
- Imposed government constraints regarding the terrorist attack area.
- Indirect impacts triggered by the initial terrorist attack.
- Whether it was a Black Swan Event-totally unpredictable before the event but typically explained away as having been obvious after the fact. (9/11 Terrorist Attack).
Because terrorists are either a "lone wolf" type or a small group of people, they must select "soft", high value targets which can create the greatest fear or failure with the least amount of effort and assets. Often, the terrorists do not count their lives as important as the message they desire to communicate or a hopeful change in the attitudes of the victims affected.
So, look around your location at home or work. What are the potential terrorist targets that you might envision? Then think outward to indirect affects that might be triggered elsewhere that might impact you locally, but at some future point in time and for a given duration.
The greatest concern would be if you are in a large urban setting of a major city. You would be faced with more possibilities of threats because of the density of population, centralized services, larger buildings, and critical industries. These all create "more bang for the buck" in the eyes of terrorists. They offer more opportunity for more types of forms of man-made disaster than if you were in a rural area with sparse population.
The further from a large metropolitan area you are, the odds are greatly reduced that you would be directly affected for some period of time. The danger for rural occupants would typically be indirect results from a direct urban terrorist act that generates multiple, continuing "domino" disasters in the wake of the original "trigger" episode. The potential downstream disasters may become far worse than the initial act.
But, distance from a terror act is usually an insulator from immediate harm and danger. Country residents or those living in small towns say 100 miles away from large cities can do things in advance to "harden" their assets to reduce future impacts. We'll discuss these preparation later in another section.
However, this is not to say that those living in the suburbs are helpless. Preventive actions taken in advance can do a lot to increase safety, sanity, and longevity. It's just a lot more difficult--primarily because of the unpredictability of the human element. And, there is also, the option of having a "bug out" plan, reasonable assets, and a place to go should things warrant that kind of protective action for you and your family. The popular acronym is WTSHTF.
POSSIBLE TERRORISM SCENARIOS
As previously mentioned, the number of terrorism scenarios are myriad. Additionally, certain types of terrorist attacks can trigger other peripheral events that could be more damaging than the original event. Let's imagine three possible terrorism scenarios to illustrate our point.
Nuclear Bomb Scenario
Suppose al-Qaida is successful at acquiring a small nuclear bomb the size of a briefcase. (They do exist you know !) Then imagine that they are able to carry it into the Financial Center on Wall Street in New York City. They detonate it. A large number of very important financial buildings are decimated and become intensely radioactive. Many thousands of people are killed outright in the area including traders, financial people, and all of their computer assets. The global financial asset jewel of the economy evaporates in seconds!
Other connected financial systems around the world would be greatly affected and may even fail with this strategic component, called Wall Street, disappears. Records of wealth are gone. All affected financial things plunge towards bankruptcy and poverty. Additionally, the huge drop in electricity causes the old, highly stressed, eastern electrical grid to stumble, falter, and then collapse. The entire eastern half of the U.S. in plunged into darkness. All commerce comes to a halt. Welcome to the Stone Age of the 21st Century!
If the loss is in the winter, many millions may freeze to death before the grid can be resurrected. If in the hot summer, many older people will die from heat. Many will die from starvation or lack of water within several weeks. Civil unrest and crime will demand martial law but on this scale of devastation, the prevention and protection would be marginal. Many millions will perish within one to two weeks. What a stroke-one little suitcase nuclear bomb! (Think about all of those unemployed nuclear scientists in Russia and the big money available from terrorist states and well-funded groups-the perfect storm of opportunity!).
There was a science fiction novel, called the "Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse". Here, three men and a woman with Muslim backgrounds came into the country several times through the porous U.S. border bringing with them small quantities of parts for a nuclear bomb. Once they had all of the parts, they placed them in the basement of a major building in New York and gradually assembled them. They then called the President of the United States and blackmailed him to stand down while a war was undertaken against Israel and their total destruction! If he didn't, they would donate the nuclear bomb destroying most of New York and all that pertained to it. Today this was a very real possibility.
The E-Bomb, Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) Scenario
6/17/2013--Proposed Congressional Legislation to Protect Country Infrastructure From EMP Radiation--Solar, Nuclear War, Terrorist Attack.
According to an article by Paul Bedard, Congressman Trent Franks of Arizona has once again proposed legislation to harden the nation's electrical grid, military weapons, and computer systems against electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) radiation that could come from a massive solar flare event, a nuclear war bomb(s), or a terrorist EMP device exploded over the center of the country at just a few hundred miles high. If our struggling electrical grid were to suffer a collaspe from such an event, the nation and its 300 million plus citizens would probably be without power for several years. Our military would be neutralized, and our businesses and finance would collapse overnight.
This would trigger a national disaster that would eventually spread to other nations and take the country back a hundred years. This would be the "mother of disasters" with many people dying from starvation, malnutrition, crime, and mayhem of the highest order.
This technology is seldom spoken of today but to our way of thinking, this takes first prize as a low cost, high impact, terrorist threat. Many qualified sources say that an EMP device could be created by a couple of mechanically and chemically skilled individuals for around $500! The blueprint and concept is widely available for those interested. It is not necessarily nuclear based but could be chemical-mechanical.
"…a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth's atmosphere or alternatively an E-Bomb created from an FCG (flux compression generator), can create an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high-density electrical field. EMP acts like a strike of lightning but is stronger, faster and briefer.
EMP can seriously damage electronic devices in use and connected to power sources or antennas. This include communication systems, computers, electrical appliances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could range from a minor interruption to actual burnout of components. Most electronic equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation or EMF discharge could be affected. Battery powered radios with short antennas generally would not be affected or electronics not turned on." 
If this device could be consolidated enough to be housed on a high altitude rocket that could reach 200 miles in altitude, terrorists would have an ideal weapon to use against any government and country. These rockets exist in the arsenals of North Korea, Iran soon, and others shortly.
North Korea or Iran could use one of their many small ships to get close enough to an American coast such as the Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf , and launch one or several medium range rockets with EMP devices aboard to reach 200 miles over the heartland of America.
For each EMP device activated, there would be a modest bang and flash that people outside might regard as a sonic boom from a military plane on a training mission. What would follow would be the entire eastern and western electrical grids being taken down simultaneously! Everything using electrical energy shuts down. This includes, not only everything connected to electrical utilities, but also the closed electrical systems of cars, trucks, trains, airplanes, if they are operating. Their electrical circuit components would become "fried". All sizes of computers from large mainframes, personal computers, networks, heart monitors, hearing aids, medical equipment-all toast, never to be used again.
Wall Street and Main Street all shutdown. The economy collapses. The country quickly enters the "Stone Age". Industry plants like refineries and chemical plants would quite likely erupt with severe damage or outright explosions and fires. Power generating plants whether coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear, could possibly create huge disasters for the surrounding populations and environments with explosions, fires, or nuclear contamination unless their "shutdown" electronics, motors, etc. are "hardened" enough to withstand an EMP burst of energy. (Highly doubtful that they could design something to prevent being damaged according to international experts.)
Terrorist or an attacking country could pretty much be able to enter a country with very little resistance because the surviving population would be in dire condition of mass starvation with few assets to defend themselves. The plus for the enemy would be the elimination of much of the population through food and water attrition, disease, and climate stress. For the attackers, nearly all infrastructure, buildings, and equipment would be intact ! They would be faced with rebuilding all electrical components on everything destroyed by the EMP burst(s) if they ever wanted to use those assets.
We have studied a report by several experts that desire to remain anonymous. They clearly described what it would take to create a deadly, weaponized biological virus or bacteria.
The required skills and knowledge could come from a selected PhD expert of viruses and 3-4 graduate students with masters degrees with similar backgrounds. They could buy the required equipment from military and government surplus facilities for around $50,000. Give them 6 months to a year and they would have enough biological virus to dispense into the population at their leisure!
A terrorist cell of half a dozen suicide jihadists or nihilists could infect themselves with smallpox and once contagious, fly around a country to major metropolitan areas and expose themselves to the most people they could and then move to the next city. Then the virus cases begins to geometrically multiply in each area visited. They wouldn't be enough smallpox vaccine for everyone and even if there were, it couldn't be distributed and dispensed fast enough. Even quarantines would be an 'after the fact' challenge. Like closing the barn door after the horse is out!
The many modern day traveling capabilities would aide in the spread of an epidemic. Once recognized as an epidemic by health and government organizations, their most logical move would be to restrain the entire population to stay within the city to prevent it from spreading to other cities. And soon, all transportation systems and travel would be halted to curtail the spread of the disease even more! The death tolls would sky rocket! The economy would crash. The country would be defenseless, since even the military couldn't be vaccinated fast enough to maintain their vigilance. And, what if the smallpox strain was one of the genetic versions developed by Russia before its breakup for which there would be no known vaccine or vaccine stores? It would be enormously difficult to identify it since no medical or scientific expertise would exist except for the attackers
(The issue of using smallpox as a weapon by a nation state or even a terrorist is that the virus doesn't respect persons or borders. The initiating parties could not safely enter the area for years even if they survived the national epidemic or it became a global pandemic.)
A second alternative might be to take the anthrax virus into cities like London, Lisbon, Paris, New York, Phoenix, Chicago, Los Angles, etc. and fly over the cities at a fairly low altitude in a small plane or better yet a helicopter. Spray the virus into the air and let it settle down onto the inhabitants. Anthrax is not contagious like smallpox, so it would only affect those who would breath in the spores. It wouldn't spread like smallpox but the Anthrax spores live for hundreds of years and would make the area uninhabitable for many years. The epidemic would be well on its way before the population would realize what had happened. In fact, they may never realize for sometime as to the method and time of delivery. The terrorists could be out of the country before the epidemic evolved to a critical stage and none of them would need to sacrifice their lives for their cause!
For a chilling mock scenario by experts of just such an attack, read the information at the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/otoole.htm
To really open your eyes on this issue, read the testimony of a former USSR biological weapons expert, Dr. Ken Alibek (Westernized name). He was in charge of the Soviet Union's civilian biological warfare unit until his defection. His 1998 testimony before a Congressional Committee:
Well, these are three of the worst case scenarios that we could envision as being feasible today. Let's hope none of these ever occur anywhere to anyone. But, if we, as regular citizens could conceive of these scenarios, certainly terrorists can and have! Just monitor the news sources carefully today and you see that terrorist and rogue governments today are moving steadily in these directions.
PLANNING AND PREPARING FOR TERRORISM DISASTERS
Because the attributes surrounding any given terrorist event makes it very difficult to plan for every contingency, it makes for a challenging exercise to marry each situation with a reasonable plan of protection to ensure successful mediation. Granted, if you happen to be unfortunate to be at "ground zero" during an attack, the odds are high it will be "game over" for you and most everyone in the area. In fact, certain biological attacks could kill millions of people far from the initial area of impact. That aside, wherever you live or work, you still need to assess the potential of being near a terrorist target and think through what its potential direct impact on you and your family might be.
Additionally, you need to view your particular situation in wider circles of broader impacts during and after a remote terrorist attack. Envision would might occur and how these things might affect you indirectly over a period of time. Do a number of "what-if" exercises. We hope to provide some considerations for you on this site in the planning and preparation sections.
ACTIONS TO TAKE DURING A TERRORIST EVENT
FEMA has stated that-- "within the immediate area of a terrorist event, you would need to rely on police, fire, and other officials for instructions. However, you can prepare in much the same way you would prepare for other crisis events."
We believe, that in general, this is good advice for the initial period of time but this needs to be weighed in context of the type of attack. You must closely monitor conditions and execute proper cautions continuously.
For example, if a virus terrorist attack is spreading rapidly in you urban vicinity, you need to protect yourself from infection either by self-quarantine, initially, or "get out of Dodge" before there is a total lockdown of the city. A government would rather lose a city population than an entire country. You must remain informed, vigilant, and proactive. You must pay attention, act decisively, and quickly when conditions reach a critical stage.
ACTIONS TO TAKE AFTER A TERRORIST EVENT
Again, what actions you take after a terrorist event has occurred is highly dependent on the nature and the impact scope of any given terrorist scenario and the duration of time that has elapsed. You'll initially be focused on TV and radio information sources, law enforcement, and perhaps even the military for suggestions, advice, and directions. (Just make sure that you are getting accurate and complete information even from officials. Some authorities don't want to cause a panic and in certain kinds of terrorist events, they may be considering martial law and possible containment of the civilian population).
For example, if something like the municipal water supply is compromised or poisoned, you'll need to determine-
- How long the condition might last.
- Do you have stored supplies that will last thru the crises.
- If you can't outlast the outage, you will need to determine if the governments can supplement.
- If not enough water will be available for certain, you'll need to pack up and leave as soon as possible going to an area where you can get ample potable water and stay long enough until the crises is resolved.
(If you wait too long and everyone else decides the same thing, you'll have a mass exodus to deal with at the gas stations, freeways and roads, and safe locations. Hopefully, you have prepared a contingency location to reside at-a "bug out" place in the country.)
We'll discuss this in more detail later in the Survival Management and Recovery area of this site.
ADDITIONAL TERRORIST DISASTER RESOURCES
Patterns of Global Terrorism. Washington: U.S. Dept. of State:
This online publication includes a link to annual editions dating back to 1995 as well as biannual editions of Foreign Terrorist Organizations Designations, and the annual Significant Incidents of Political Violence Against Americans from 1995 to 1998. Patterns of Global Terrorism includes useful appendices such as "Background Information on Terrorist Groups" which provides material on al-Qaida established by Osama Bin Laden Terrorism.
This Department of Defense website includes links to a wide range of official U.S. military and government sources relating to Operation Enduring Freedom and the struggle against terrorism.
This website/portal provides one-stop-shopping for official U.S. government information. The section titled "America Responds to Terrorism" contains a comprehensive collection of links to information from all agencies on bioterrorism, handling suspicious mail, bomb threats, victim assistance, travel concerns, and protecting yourself and your country.
America's War on Terrorism: World Trade Center/Pentagon Terrorism and the Aftermath:
This University of Michigan website contains a wealth of sources.
America on Alert: The War Against Terrorism:
This Naval War College Library site contains useful sources including bibliographies on political Islam and homeland defense/domestic terrorism as well as links to Congressional Research Service reports concerning terrorism.
General Accounting Office:
This website contains many reports on homeland and aviation security, combating terrorism, and defense against chemical and biological weapons.
Centers for Disease Control:
Includes homeland defense material such as the report "Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response," and information on the national pharmaceutical stockpile, and defense against smallpox attack.
Terrorism: Background and Threat Assessments:
The Federation of American Scientists has assembled links to a wide range of useful sources. They also provide information and links concerning the Taliban:
The World Factbook 2001:
This Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publication includes a section on Afghanistan and other countries accused of harboring terrorists. Information is provided on each country including a map and data on the government, military, communications, geography, communications, and transnational issues.
CIA Electronic Document Release Center:
Using the search engine will locate historic sanitized CIA documents relating to terrorism.
University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection:
This site includes an extensive selection of maps of Afghanistan including maps produced by the CIA and historic maps. Maps relating to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks are available for the Pentagon, World Trade Center, and the Pennsylvania crash site of United Airlines Flight 93.
The Rand Corporation:
This site provides several recent online publications on terrorism. A section titled "Research Areas" includes a subsection titled "National Security" with further information on terrorism.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI):
Provides useful information on terrorism including photographs of the hijackers associated with the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, as well as press releases. The site also includes a "ten most wanted fugitives" section and a publications section which includes the online publication CONPLAN--U.S. Government Interagency Domestic Terrorism Concept of Operations Plan. The website's search engine will locate numerous items relating to terrorism.
U.S. Coast Guard:
The "News and Events" section includes articles on port, harbor, and other security activities.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA):
Contains information on the recovery from the Pentagon and New York terrorist attacks, as well as advice on how to talk to children about terrorist attacks, information about urban search and rescue, and fact sheets on terrorism.
National Security Archives:
Provides an extremely useful selection of official documents concerning terrorism. Documents to be posted shortly will include lessons from the Soviet war in Afghanistan, U.S. policy and planning for "Low-Intensity Conflict," CIA guidelines on the recruitment of agents, and the use of assassination in U.S. foreign policy.
Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism: Report from the National Commission on Terrorism. Washington: National Commission on Terrorism, 2000.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency:
In the "News and Information"section under "Threat Reduction Literature" is a bibliography on weapons of mass destruction.
"Homeland Defense and Domestic Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography." Library Notes [Naval War College, Newport RI] 29, no.2 (Oct. 2000). Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Terrorism/Warfare: A Bibliography. Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School. Terrorist and Insurgent Organizations. Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama:
"Nuclear Terrorism: Published Literature Since 1992." U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Military Review 77, no.4 (Jul.-Aug. 1997): Terrorism: A Guide to Library Resources for Anthropology. Adelaide University Library, Australia.
Casualties: U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Killed and Wounded in Wars, Conflicts, Terrorist Acts, and Other Hostile Incidents.
See the post-World War II section of the chronology for terrorist incidents.
U.S. Navy and Terrorism. The U.S. Navy Office of Information:
The "Navy News Stand" includes articles relating to the struggle against terrorism.
Casualties: U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Killed and Wounded in Wars, Conflicts, Terrorist Acts, and Other Hostile Incidents.
See the post-World War II portion of the chronology for terrorist incidents.
America's War on Terrorism: World Trade Center/Pentagon Terrorism and the Aftermath:
This University of Michigan website contains a wealth of sources.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA):
 Source: Patterns of Global Terrorism. Washington: Dept. of State, 2001: vi.
 EMP-Electro-Magnetic Pulse Risks and Terrorism:
 Dr. Gary North's Specific Answers:
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